Archive for the ‘ CCTV Articles ’ Category



Configuring Your NVR System

Written By:
Monday, April 18th, 2016

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How do I begin to configure my NVR System? We often get questions like this and “how do I test and configure my camera system?”  To be honest, this question is very specific to the individual customer. Configuring your NVR system depends on which cameras and recording system you’ve chosen and how you will be using and configuring them, each application creates a different set of circumstances.  Regardless, I intend to give you a basic understanding of how to do a basic configuration with a Network Video Recorder (NVR) and Internet Protocol (IP) Cameras, at very least in broad generic strokes.  I will clarify some of your options and some of the places where your specific situation may tangent off as each installation and configuration is different.  If at any time you feel overwhelmed or confused during this article please remember that technical support is available for the lifetime of any of our systems.   (This link can offer you more information about just how our tech support can help support you in the installation process and beyond. http://www.securitycameraking.com/securityinfo/technical-support-might-be-the-most-important-part-of-your-security-camera-system/).

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To put it into a basic explanation an NVR system installation/configuration can be broken down into 3 simple steps.  Step one is the physical installation which consists of two parts: First the physical placement of camera(s), and of wire, etc. (which this article will not cover in depth, but can be found in a variety of other articles)(referenced here for your convenience: http://www.securitycameraking.com/securityinfo/cctv-installation-the-professional-way-with-no-shortcuts/ , http://www.securitycameraking.com/securityinfo/cctv-installation-good-bad/) and second, the physical installation of all components to the NVR including the hard drives, cameras and monitor. Followed by the configuration of the cameras themselves and finally configuring the Network Video Recorder Itself.  We will break things down and provide individual instruction on how to accomplish these tasks.

CCTV-Camera-Installer

Step 1 THE PHYSICAL INSTALLATION: So, you begin the physical installation by plugging the NVR into to a wall outlet. Once you have done this, we can connect the Ethernet cable from the camera to either an NVR with built in POE or plug the camera into a separate POE switch. If you are utilizing a separate POE switch it should be connected to either a modem/router or to a second Network Interface Card or (NIC) that is marked Network 2 (If you are utilizing Dual NICs it is recommended that you take a look here for a more in depth explanation http://www.securitycameraking.com/securityinfo/the-advantages-of-an-nvr-with-dual-nics/). Here is where we first see that each individual set up can change. (Another important side note is that if you are using the NVR to record you will need to have a hard drive installed. When you purchase a hard rive from us it will come installed in the NVR but if you choose to purchase one elsewhere, you will have to install the drive yourself first. Additionally, the installation of the hard drive should be done prior to plugging the power for the Network Video Recorder in.

NVR Ports

Step 2 CONFIGURING THE CAMERAS THEMSELVES: Depending on which model of camera you are using, you may need to configure the cameras themselves as well. This means configuring Internet Protocol addresses (specific numbers the NVR and other devices use on the network to identify themselves to other devices), lighting settings, recording operations, watermarks and more. Each IP cameras has their own menus and some can be accessed through the NVR while some cannot. This is where the minor differences can make the biggest changes in your cameras video quality and thus help you get more out of your system.  Configuring your cameras to fit in the IP scheme means downloading the appropriate configuration tool and plugging in the camera to the computer to set the IP address so that the NVR can see it  (If you are using our EL cameras this is a step you can skip as the NVR will automatically recognize these cameras for you).  A more detailed description of how to utilize the config tool can be found here: http://www.securitycameraking.com/securityinfo/new-improved-config-tool-simple-el-camera-setup/ or http://www.securitycameraking.com/securityinfo/how-to-configure-an-eline-eli-sip-emvd-21-4r-onvif-ip-security-camera/.  Once you’ve configured the cameras to fit in the IP scheme it may help to log into the cameras IP address and configure the Wide Dynamic Range or other settings within the camera depending on the application.  Once all of these steps have been completed the process becomes further simplified to the NVR itself.

Config Tool Static

Step 3: CONFIGURING THE NVR:  A variety of similar menus within the NVR itself now become the focus.  Configuring the NVR is generally a matter of choosing the frame rate you wish to record at and the frame rate you wish to view.  Further details about configuring your main stream and sub-stream can be found here: http://www.securitycameraking.com/securityinfo/dvr-main-stream-and-sub-stream/. Following this you may also want to choose the schedule of recording you wish for your cameras to follow or to set the cameras to motion detect or 24/7 recording.  The details on how to navigate these menus can be found here: http://www.securitycameraking.com/securityinfo/how-to-set-up-a-dvr-to-record-on-motion-detection/ and the step by step process is demystified. (Note there may be some differences where to get each menu but the process remains the same.) Now that we’ve covered the basics you should feel more confident on your knowledge base and if you do not, please remember our tech support is here to assist you in any manor necessary. From the few basic questions to a step by step walk through and our ability to remotely log in and set it all up for you. This, by the way, leads us to the last part of the NVR configuration . . . . configuring your NVR to be viewed remotely.  This part is simple on the NVR side but can vary greatly from modem to modem. Therefore it is best recommended that you contact tech support, however you can find more information here http://www.securitycameraking.com/securityinfo/basic-port-forwarding-for-security-dvrs/ .

Motion Schedule

Regardless of your experience level, our tech support department can help you but if you’re a self-starter this should help you with the basics of how to configure your Cameras and NVR from start to finish.   If you have not purchased a system with us before, our sales department can help you put a custom package together to give you the level of control and planning that matches your interests. It just takes a phone cal to TechPro Security Products at 866-573-8878!

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DATA PROTECTION: Secure your Infromation

Written By:
Thursday, April 14th, 2016

Data protection: Secure your information before it becomes too late.

 

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Security can be a very obscure word. The context of the word is crucial in understanding if you are actually secure.  If locked doors made items secure we would have no need for Security Cameras. If our network devices were immune to remote access vandalism we would not have firewalls on our networks.  The phrase “security through obscurity” is very dangerous, and it is all too well known in the IT world.

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Obscurity is one instance of where IT needs to be detailed in the management of CCTV systems. The tools available for the bad people to use are not toys. They can pick apart networks quickly like ants on a piece of carrion. Every crack and crevice will be known and fast.

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Your security camera system can become the point of an attack from hackers. I have seen this manifest itself in different ways now. These attacks are an extension of old personal computer attacks just on DVRs and NVRs. These attacks are completely preventable, but you have to be proactive. Network appliances have to be configured properly as well as the DVRs.

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First and foremost our Elite series equipment prompts the first user to change the login passwords. Changing default passwords is extremely important for one main reason. Anyone that knows how to google “what’s my default password” is going to figure out your device’s default passwords in less than 60 seconds.  Another recommendation is to make yourself a new administrator account to operate the DVR/NVR. Then only use the default admin account to recover passwords of other accounts.

The next way to make your system more secure is to change off default port numbers. All CCTV DVRs and NVRs are network capable. The network capable is what allows for the remote access. The same applies here as well and it does not take long to find out what the default port numbers are. Port numbers dictate what kind of protocol is being used. A protocol can be listened to or sniffed as it is a communication.  Since not all communication is encrypted when it is sniffed, the hacker can find out the login credentials as they are transmitted in raw text that can be made readable again. Using encrypted protocols will stop the login information and all packet data mostly unreadable. Without cracking the key to deciphering the data packet the hacker would never know what it contains. Most DVRs and NVRs now support HTTPS. The standard port it operates on is 443, but you can always change it. This protocol operates at the highest level of the OSI model. For most people this can be acceptable such as retail business for other industries this may not be the best practice as you can only use web browsers for access to use the encryption.

For an industry that has to be HIPPA compliant in security, it is dictated you use other than default configurations. Protecting medical records is a very important. This means any device on an IP address that is default must be changed for every device. Port numbers for protocols must also be changed. That directly affects how remote access works.  Usernames and passwords also must be changed. In short anything that has anything to do with patients must be completely changed out of default configurations. In security cameras, the configuration needs to be changed and the data protected from people that should not have access to it.

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How to configure FTP to backup your Recorder

Written By:
Tuesday, April 5th, 2016

Imagine a situation: your DVR or NVR has been stolen. It is in this situation where learning How to configure FTP to backup your Recorder is necessary.

You’ve gone in the right direction to protect your property by purchasing a CCTV camera system. Having security cameras visible is enough in most cases to deter criminals from trying to gain entry to your home or business, but what happens if criminals still decide to access your property? If your security cameras are positioned well the footage you need to identify him or her will likely be recorded so the authorities can hopefully make an arrest.

However, if the criminal sees the cameras system and is still daring enough to break in, he or she will likely look for the DVR or NVR recorder and to try and make sure no evidence is left behind.

But fear not, there is something you can do to retain that footage even if the DVR or NVR is stolen and that is to have the footage from your recorder backed up using the FTP feature.

How to backup your security recorder via FTP:

In order to use this feature, you first need an FTP server. A computer on the same network as the DVR or NVR that is always on will work perfectly. I recommend FileZilla which is a free FTP server software that works on Windows and can be downloaded at https://filezilla-project.org/. Once installed, you need to set up your FTP directory, rights to write data to the folder where the footage will be stored, groups and accounts.

Set up your FTP directory, rights:

Open Groups settings and Add a new Group. (NOTE: To Any user that belongs to a group, settings will be overridden by the groups settings.) Type any name for your group and click OK. Click on Shared folders and a folder path where the footage will store. From the Files and Directories option click on ALL the options available, including auto create. Click OK when done.

Next click on Shared folders and click Add. You can then browse to where you want the footage backed up to as shown below.

Click on the user’s icon to create a new user. Click Add to configure its settings such as password and group. Click Ok when done.

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The FTP is now all set up. All you need to know from here is the IP address of the computer it is installed on. You can obtain this by going to your start menu > run, type “cmd” and enter to open a command prompt. In that window type “ipconfig” and hit enter. Your IP address will be displayed. Take that information down as we will need to enter it into the Recorder’s FTP configuration which we will review next.

Access your DVR’s or NVR’s web service by typing the IP address of the recorder into your Internet Explorer address bar. Then click the Setup tab and the storage category. Under that click on Storage and then the FTP tab. Click the checkbox to enable the FTP feature and enter your computer’s IP address in the Server IP field. By default, FileZilla uses port 21 so you can leave that field alone.

Enter the username and password for the user you created in FileZilla. Remote Directory can be left blank as you already choose the folder where you want the footage to be backed up to. Finally, you need to choose the channels you want to backup, what type of files (MD, Regular or Alarm) you want to backup and the weekdays. NOTE: If you want to backup only motion event to the FTP, then the Recorder’s schedule need to be configure as motion for it to work.

The period setting is for you to select the time period of the recorded files to be uploaded. In another words, If you want to only backup footage of your working hours, lets say from 9AM to 6PM, then you will need to configure the period assuredly. The second period is in case you would like another type of recording type, for example regular recording.

You now have everything set up that is needed to have an additional backup of your footage for more piece of mind. If the DVR or NVR is stolen, you will still have the footage you need to hopefully lead police to an arrest.

Now you might be wondering, “What if the computer is stolen too?”, or “What if I don’t have a computer at that location?”. Well, you can use the FTP feature to also back up footage offsite. Say for example you want to back up the footage from the DVR or NVR at your business to a computer you have at home. The setup is relatively the same, so follow all of the previous steps for installing FileZilla on your home computer, and the same steps for setting up the FTP feature on your DVR or NVR. The one difference will be for the Server IP setting in the DVR’s configuration. You want to set this to your home network’s external IP. You can see what that is by visiting http://canyouseeme.org from your home computer. Use the IP address given to you on that site for the Server IP field in the FTP options.

The setup is almost complete, but you need to open up the FTP port on your home network’s router so the DVR can find the server. Refer to your routers documentation on how to set up port forwarding. You will need to forward TCP port 21 to your computer’s IP address. Again, this can be found by running ipconfig from a command prompt. Once this is done, you can confirm your port forwarding settings are working by visiting http://canyouseeme.org and testing port 21. It should respond with a successful message if everything is set up properly. You are now set up, but keep in mind the backup process will need a lot of bandwidth. You will need sufficient upload speed from where the DVR is installed, and download speed on the network that has the FTP server. You can test your speeds at http://speedtest.net. If your speeds aren’t great, you can always be more selective in what you back up. You can just backup a certain camera, day of the week or time periods.

If you want access to your footage from anywhere, or don’t want to run your own FTP server, you can use a cloud-based storage solution. Any cloud storage solution will work fine that has FTP access. The account settings for your cloud storage service will provide you with the IP address, account and port needed to set up your recorder’s FTP backup feature.

You now have three different ways you can enable FTP backup of footage from your DVR or NVR. This will provide you with additional piece of mind, as your footage will still be available if the DVR is stolen or destroyed. You should still try to conceal the location of the DVR if possible, but if the criminal sees the cameras he will likely try hard to look for it. With the FTP backup feature of SecurityCameraKing’s DVRs and NVRs, you don’t have to be out of luck if it is found.

 

 

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How to configure and connect a Prime IP camera with an Elite NVR

Written By:
Friday, March 25th, 2016

elite-ip-networkprime-ip-network

Here at securitycameraking.com we focus on providing the best tech support possible and now with our new prime line-up, it is necessary to demonstrate how easy it is to work with this new line. In this article I will demonstrate how to integrate our Prime cameras with our Elite NVRs. Noticed that the integration doesn’t work the other way around (ELITE IPC with PRIME NVRs).

All of our Prime IPC as well as all of our Elite NVRs support the ONVIF protocol. To start, you will need to configure a few things in the camera to allow this integration to work flawlessly and it is required that you set this up prior to connecting the camera to any of the Elite NVRs. All of our Prime cameras come setup with the following IP address; 192.0.0.64. You will need to use our SADP tool to find the camera on the network and change the IP address parameters. After the camera has been connected to the network, allow a minute for the camera to boot up and show in the tool. Open the SADP tool and a list of devices will show in the network. Refer to the picture below:

IPC IP Change

After finding the camera using the SADP tool, click on the corresponding ID and on the right side of the application options click on “Enable DHCP”.  Type the admin password of the camera which by default is “admin” for username and “12345′ for password. Click on modify when done and a successful message should pop up.

IPC IP Change 2

Click on the refresh button to see what IP address you have acquired. After you know the IP address you can simply click on the option “Enable DHCP” to set the camera with static IPs so it will never change. You can now access the camera’s web service and configure the rest of the settings such as motion and encoding settings. You might need to configure your browser to access the camera. If you are using Internet explorer then you will need to set certain things under tools. Follow this link to learn more about these settings. This  applies to virtually all network devices that required an Activex control to be download first in order to access the Web Service. For this demonstration I will be using safari on a Mac computer running El Capitan OSx. Type the IP address of the camera and a login page screen will appear:Screen Shot 2015-10-05 at 4.52.33 PM

Type the username “admin” and the password “12345′ to access the cameras interface

 

Screen Shot 2015-10-07 at 3.15.11 PM

From here you can see the video streaming from  the camera. You can click on Sub Stream or Main Stream to change the fluency and picture quality. Opening the camera either way will not affect how the camera records but it will affect how much bandwidth you use in your network for every given camera stream that is being viewed over the network. Go ahead and click on configuration. In this section you have basic settings or advance settings. Select advance settings and click on “Time Settings”. Make sure your time is set manually and it shows as follows:

Screen Shot 2015-10-07 at 3.37.25 PM

 

Go to the “DST” Tab and make sure you configure these settings according to the current year. Every year is different so you most check how it is at the time of configuring this setting. At the time this article was written the settings for 2015 are as follows.

Screen Shot 2015-10-07 at 3.40.04 PM

The next step is to configure your resolutions. Although you can change this from ALL ELITE NVRs, why not change it? I will set this Ip camera to 3 megapixels for the main stream and D1 for the sub stream. The settings are as follows:

Screen Shot 2015-10-07 at 4.01.44 PMScreen Shot 2015-10-07 at 4.09.25 PM

Click on the Image settings and it is up to you to adjust where the time and camera overlay is displayed in the video. You can click on the time and drag it to the location you would like to appear and you can do the same with the name of the camera. By default the camera name will be displayed as “Camera 1”. It is recommend that you change it so it is more intuitive and besides, you cannot change it from the NVR. See picture below:

Screen Shot 2015-10-07 at 4.49.03 PM

You can also set the time to be displayed in a 12H format, change to display week days in the OSD or turn them all off as a whole. Go now to Event to enable motion detection and configure the region in the area. In this section you will need to click on “Enable Motion Detection” , then click on “draw area” button to select the region that will activate motion. See picture below:

Screen Shot 2015-10-07 at 5.24.23 PMScreen Shot 2015-10-07 at 5.32.56 PM

After “Draw Area” is enabled, drag your mouse across the picture to create the region being set. The result should be as below:

Screen Shot 2015-10-07 at 5.35.34 PM

Click on “Stop Drawing” and adjust the sensitivity of the camera. The higher the number, the more sensitive the motion setting will be. Scroll down and select what time motion will be triggered. By default it is set to 24 Hours so you shouldn’t have to change anything. Click save after you are done. See pictures below:

Screen Shot 2015-10-07 at 5.24.47 PM

There are other methods of triggering such as “Line Crossing Detection” and “Intrusion Detection”. They should NOT be configured at the same time that motion detection is configured. I have tested these 2 features and so far they work with an 85% accuracy. Now that we have configured the camera completely, it’s time to connect it to the NVR. For this demonstration, I’m using an NVR-ELE8M-P4K. The unit has built-in POE and I will explain both ways that you can connect the camera to this NVR. The first method you can use to connect to the camera is over the network. One thing we need to know is the IP address of the camera and NVR as they must be in the same network in order to successfully connect the camera to the NVR. Assuming both devices are in the same ip range, we will log into the NVR and proceed to add the camera to the NVR. Log into the NVR and go to “SETTING>CAMERA>REMOTE”

NVR Device Search

Click on the “Device Search” button. Once you have found the camera(s) you will have an option to check one or more cameras to add to the NVR. Click on “Add” to attach the camera to the NVR and begin to stream. Noticed on the bottom of the  Device Search window the camera will show a status. This status naturally should be green, indication that the camera is streaming correctly and communication with it is successful. It is possible sometimes that the camera will never change its status and we might need to check a few things. Make sure the camera is ON by checking connectivity between your PC and the camera. You can either execute a ping command from your PC or simply run the TOOL FINDER from your PC. If you successfully ping or find the camera on the network then it will most likely be an issue with the authentication (password) of the  camera. Remember at the beginning of this article I explained the camera’s password is 12345; unless you change it to default “admin” then it needs to be changed in the NVR when you add the camera. To do this, click on the pencil to edit the connection settings of the camera.

IP Onvif Change

After you change the password to 12345 then the camera status should have changed to active. See picture below:

IP Onvif status Change

At this point you should be able to see an image on the NVR and you should be able to see the camera triggering motion recording at the local interface of the NVR. To be 100% sure everything is working good, check footage after a motion test in the NVR, so we know that the NVR is recording when motion events happen. See Pictures Below:

IP Onvif Camera image

motion Events

The other way we could connect the camera is over POE built into an NVR. If you decide to use this method over the other, the settings of the camera need to be configured as mentioned before; the only thing that will change is the IP address that you assign in the camera. As you might know, all of our Elite Series NVRs that have built in POE come with a default IP address of 10.1.1.1. See picture below:

Screen Shot 2015-10-14 at 4.28.01 PM

The idea behind having a built in POE NVR is to reduce broadcast over the network from all the cameras and also to make the recorder plug and Play. NOTE: Plug and Play connections over the built in POE is only possible with Elite Series IP Cameras and not ONVIF. To configure our Prime IP cameras to work over the POE of the NVR, all you need to do is assign an IP address to the camera within the POE’s Range. For example, you could assign this camera an IP address of 10.1.1.200, with subnet mask 255.255.255 and default gateway 10.1.1.1. You could also change the IP address of the POE to something you may have seen before, like 192.168.x.x which it cannot be in the same range as the NVR’s LAN ethernet port. Default IP of the NVR is 192.168.1.108.

The next and final step is to connect the camera to one of the ports of the NVR’s POE and allow at least a minute for the camera to fully boot up. Go to the NVR’s SETUP>CAMERA>REMOTE DEVICE>MANUAL ADD and the following window will display:Screen Shot 2015-10-14 at 4.47.32 PM

In this window, change the manufacturer to ONVIF, the IP address 10.1.1.200 that we decided we were changing it to, leave the username as admin and the password if you are using the camera’s default password then type 12345 as shown below:

Screen Shot 2015-10-14 at 4.47.53 PM

Click Ok then the camera will start to stream video. Following all of these steps you will be able to integrate our Prime series cameras with our Elite Series NVRs. If you have any questions contact us at    866.573.8878   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Buying a CCTV system and what you should know part 2

Written By:
Thursday, March 24th, 2016

HD-Cameras

Now this is a continuation of a previous article…..

In this article buying  a CCTV system and what you should know part 2 we are going to cover the new High Definition over coaxial market.  With this new technology you have a lot of great features that have helped to push the old analog technology to the way of the eight track tape, cassette tape, VHS, and the HD DVD.  All of these previously stated technologies, while good in their time were replaced by better, more efficient technology.  With new High Definition over coaxial technology, you currently get the ability to send 720p and 1080p video signals down the same line that you used to only be able to send analog signals down.  Now the reason I say you can currently get 720 and 1080, is the fact that it is being worked on to be able to send up to 8MP or 4K resolution up these same cables.  Now this technology is not available in the United States at the moment, but there are plans to get it here in the second quarter of 2016.  This will be a game changer for the coaxial cable installations, but will always take a back seat to the resolutions that IP (Internet Protocol) systems will be able to produce.  The reason for this, is that the data limitations of coaxial cable will always be the same, where there is essentially no data limitation with Cat6 cabling.  I say essentially as we have not reached a limitation on a single camera run, now if you add a large amount of cameras that funnel into a single switch and then funnel down the pipe you will have a data limitation.

I have previously described in another article the differences between the newer HD over coaxial technologies in articles such as,  “TVI vs. CVI, What is the Difference?“.  If you want a little more in depth information on HD over coaxial cable CCTV systems, I highly recommend reading to help better understand the technologies.  I am only going to cover some of the basics of this technology and those articles go in depth as to the differences between the competing technologies.

 

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One of the nice things about this new technology is that you can utilize your existing cable infrastructure and obtain the High Definition video quality from your CCTV System.  Now there is a caveat to using your existing cabling is that if you have old pre-made cabling you will be limited on the highest video quality you can get.  For example, if you do use this cabling you will want to stick with 720p setups or your image quality will suffer.  This being said, your video will still be better than your old analog system could be.  With a DVR (Digital Video Recorder), not like your cable DVR,  you will run all of your camera cables all the way back to the DVR.  This is called a home run as the cables go from the point of the camera location all the way home to the DVR.  At the DVR location you generally will have the power supply to power the cameras, but on longer runs some installers will opt for power supplies closer to the camera location to prevent voltage drop.  With voltage drop you may get a camera to function, but the question is for how long.  The industry and electrical standard is for no more than a 10 percent drop in the voltage from it origin.  So if you are sending 12Vdc, you should have no less than 10.8Vdc at the camera side, for the camera to operate.  If you are exceeding this, then you may want to think about upgrading your power supply to a 24Vac supply to increase the distance.  If you do decide to need to upgrade your power supply make sure you either have dual voltage cameras which can handle 12Vdc or 24Vac or you simply use a 12Vdc camera with a down converter at the camera to convert the 24Vac down to 12Vdc so the camera can handle it.  If you simply use a 24Vac power supply and hook a 12Vdc camera up to it, you will fry the camera and be stuck buying another camera as they will not be covered by any warranty.

Now all of this being said, don’t get scared! This was said to make you aware of potential risks and inform you. Another very nice thing about using a DVR setup is the fact that there is literally zero video latency associated with it.  This may not be something most people are aware of, but video latency is when there is an object moving in front of the camera you see it in real time.  With an IP camera setup you can get some video latency and depending on the amount of cameras and bandwidth being used internally this can be from as little as a fraction of a second to as much as a couple of seconds.  This is highly important in a retail environment especially if you are following someone or something around trying to make sure there is no theft occurring.  You don’t want to give the perpetrator time to get away before you catch what they are doing.  With the DVR setup, this is a nonissue since the video is being encoded and decoded at the unit itself allowing for a live view of your location.  Now if you are remotely viewing any system from analog to IP you will deal with latency as it needs to be transmitted remotely and captured and re-outputted to the source you are viewing.  You will have several factors in this type of a scenario.  You will have the upload bandwidth at the site you are remoted into, the download speed at the location of the remote viewing, and any other network traffic across the World Wide Web.  For most people, they do not expect that when they are watching remotely to have it 100 percent real time, but there are some that have to have it as real time as possible, and for those people I suggest a direct fiber link between locations to prevent this as much as possible.  I have only begun to scratch the surface, so check back for a continuation of these articles.

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